International Journal of Academic Research and Development

International Journal of Academic Research and Development


International Journal of Academic Research and Development
International Journal of Academic Research and Development
Vol. 6, Issue 2 (2021)

Physical activity and its association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural area of Kashmir Valley: A cross-sectional study


Reyana Qulsum, Rohul Jabeen Shah, Uroosa Farooq Allaqband, Rauf-ur Rashid Kaul

Physical activity and its association with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in rural area of Kashmir Valley: A cross-sectional study

Reyana Qulsum1, Rohul Jabeen Shah2, Uroosa Farooq Allaqband1*, Rauf-ur Rashid Kaul2

1 Senior Resident, Department of Community Medicine, Sher-i- Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

2 Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Sher-i- Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

 

 

Abstract

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, complicating 2-8% of all pregnancies worldwide. Without intervention, women with HDP are at risk of many disorders. The causes of HDP are not well understood therefore, its prevention remains challenge. However, physical activity as one modifiable risk factor has shown promising results in the prevention of HDP.

Aim and Objective: To identify the association of physical activity with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the association of physical activity with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The study was conducted in registered pregnant women in 11 sub-centres of a rural health block of Kashmir. The data collected was compiled and analysed using SPSS version 20.00.

Results: The total activity score of hypertensive women was 38.61±9.12 compared to 48.07±17.06 of normotensive pregnant women and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.006).

Conclusion: Decreased physical activity may be the risk factor for hypertension in pregnancy.

 

Keywords: risk factors, pregnancy, physical activity, hypertension

 

Introduction

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, complicating 2-8% of all pregnancies worldwide [1, 2]. Without intervention, women with HDP are at risk of many disorders. The causes of HDP are not well understood therefore, its prevention remains challenge2. However, physical activity as one modifiable risk factor has shown promising results in the prevention of HDP. One hypothesis suggests that the amount of time a woman spends in sedentary activity during pregnancy may be indicative of risk of pre-eclampsia than the amount and type of physical activity performed [3, 4, 5].

 

Material and Methods

This cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the association of physical activity with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The study was conducted in registered pregnant women in 11 sub-centres of a rural health block of Kashmir. An elaborate activity questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of the study population. This questionnaire was developed by Rao S et al (2003)6in their study among rural Indian pregnant women. The data so collected was compiled and analysed using SPSS version 20.00.

 

Ethical Clearance

Approval was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee, SKIMS.

 

Results

 

Table 1: Activity pattern of the study population

 

Activity pattern

Total

N=350(100%)

Hypertensive

N=26 (100%)

Non-hypertensive

N=324 (100%)

Rest in afternoon

108(69.1%)

1(3.8%)

107(33.0%)

Watching TV

126(36%)

25(96.1%)

101(31.2%)

Cooking

301 (86.0%)

21(80.8%)

280(86.4%)

Washing Clothes

240 (68.6%)

18(69.2%)

222(68.5%)

Washing Utensils

225 (64.3%)

15(57.7%)

210(64.8%)

Care of animals

218 (62.3%)

8(30.8%)

210(64.8%)

Fetching firewood

211 (60.3%)

16(61.5%)

195(60.2%)

Fetching water

168 (48.0%)

14(53.8%)

154(47.5%)

Breastfeeding

224 (64.0%)

2(7.7%)

222(68.5%)

Farming

86 (24.6%)

0

86(26.5%)

Hand embroidery

13 (3.7%)

0

13(4.0%)

Other Activities

0

0

0

 

Table 1 depicts the activity pattern of the study population. It is evident from the table that the majority of the women used to cook whereas 14% of the women did not report any cooking activity. Most of the women (68.6%, 64.3%, and 60.3%) were involved in washing clothes, utensils and fetching firewood, respectively as their main domestic activities. Conversely, the main domestic activity of the hypertensives (80%) was cooking while washing clothes, washing utensils, fetching water and firewood were reported by 69.2%, 57.7%, 61.5% and 53.8% of the hypertensive women respectively. 62.3% were involved in animal care or milking and 48% had to fetch water. 69.1% of the total women used to take afternoon naps among whom only 3.8% Were the hypertensive women. It was noticeable that 36% of the women reported watching television, among whom the majority (96.1%) were hypertensive women. 64% of the total women and 7.7% of the hypertensive women were breastfeeding their youngest child. The women also made a considerable contribution in activities like farming (24.6%) and hand embroidery (3.7%) while no hypertensive woman contributed in such activities.

 

 

Table 2: Comparison of mean activity score between hypertensives and non-hypertensives

 

Activity Pattern

Activity score* (Mean ± SD)

Hypertensive Mean ± SD

Non-hypertensive Mean ± SD

P-value

Night sleep

9.214±1.975

7.846±1.912

9.324±1.941

0.0001

Afternoon Nap

6.640 ±0.578

6.962±0.196

6.614±0.591

0.003

Watching TV

12.129±2.556

9.769±1.366

12.318±2.535

0.0001

Cooking

2.633±1.326

2.700±1.669

2.627±1.297

0.788

Washing Clothes

2.354±1.801

3.096±2.470

2.294±1.727

0.029

Washing Utensils

2.221±1.853

2.558±2.511

2.194±1.792

0.336

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