Global environmental governance: Ozone regime and the North-South dimension
The interplay of several factors contributed to the emergence of global environment as one of the central themes in global politics: intensification of the process of economic globalization, new scientific evidence, role of the epistemic community, significant increase in environmental social movements, and the role played by the United Nations. The North-South dimension has been the central political context of global environmental politics since the first United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972, and continue to be so in the new millennium. The collective position of the South aggregated and articulated by the Third World coalition (Group of 77) of ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ and ‘additional financial assistance’ continues to inform the Southern position in negotiations for regime formation on the entire spectrum of global environmental issues. The negotiations for the ozone regime brought to the fore the North-South conflict, and the agreement on Montreal Protocol could be reached after the North accepted the demand of the South of common and differential responsibilities, and the creation of a multilateral fund to defray the cost of switching to substitute technology. Only after the multilateral fund was created by the industrialized countries through the London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol that the developing countries became signatories to the protocol. The ozone regime formation suggests that the South has a political leverage in regime formation on global environmental issues.