Climate smart agriculture: A necessity for food security
Akram A Khan, Md. Anis Anwar
Food production needs to increase by 70 percent in order to feed the global population which is expected to reach 9.1 billion in 2050 and over 10 billion by end of the century. This will require major changes in agricultural production systems. Agriculture in developing countries must undergo a significant transformation in order to meet the challenges of achieving food security and at the same time responding to climate change. Enhancing cropland management is key to increase crop yield without further degrading soil and water resources. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods. Climate change disrupts food production, posing risks to food supply. This risk can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity as well as increasing resilience in agricultural production systems. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming agricultural systems to support food security under the certainties of climate change. CSA encourages coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways. It focuses on contributing to economic development, poverty reduction and food security; maintaining and enhancing the productivity and resilience of natural and agricultural ecosystem, thus building natural capital; and reducing trade-offs involved in meeting these goals. CSA aims to tackle three main objectives- sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes; adapting and building resilience to climate change; and reducing GHG emission. CSA helps in developing agricultural strategies to secure sustainable food security under climate change. In this view, the paper focuses on the climate change effects, prevalence of food insecurity and how CSA could be an option to tackle this menace.