Studies on phytochemical analysis and screening for active compounds in some ferns of Ranchi and Latehar districts
The principle objective was to evaluate chemical constituents of some locally and wildly grown fern plants of Ranchi and Latehar districts. Fern plants are growing under different environmental conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of essential oils from two chemically unexplored fern ses of Ranchi and latehar district. So, the content of different bio-macromolecules and secondary metabolites are different in these plants. Ferns are least exploited group of plants in India, when compared to other countries of the world. Phytochemical studies of the two plants under investigation are important while evaluating plant wealth of the region under study. Lygodium flexuosum was growing in areas under comparatively less water availability whereas Ampelopteris prolifera was growing under high water and moisture content. Lygodium flexuosum and Ampelopteris prolifera contains lots of pigments, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids and several secondary metabolites. The present study was made to find out the chemical composition (in case of rhizome, fronds, and petiole of the two ferns) and their relationship with antimicrobial activity of these two plant species. Methanol extract showed maximum numbers (eight) of the compounds. Reducing sugars are present in petroleum ether extract and methanol extract of Lygodium flexuosum and in Ampelopteris prolifera it is present in the methanol extract only. Alkaloids are present in the benzene extract and methanol extract of L. flexuosum and in A. prolifera these compounds are present in methanol extract only. Lygodium flexuosum rhizome extract possessed more anti bacterial principles (than Ampelopteris prolifera, when compared), soluble in methanol and acetone which suppressed the growth and multiplication of the tested bacterial species than leaves and petiole. The presence of phenolics, flavonoids and triterpenoids in acetone extract might be responsible for its maximum anti bacterial activity in Lygodium flexuosum and little in Ampelopteris prolifera. Petroleum ether extract did not show the presence of chemicals tested in Ampelopteris prolifera. Methanol extract showed the presence of flavonoids and phenolics. The anti bacterial activity of different plant parts of these two ferns and their active constituents would be helpful in treating various kinds of diseases. Lygodium flexuosum is potential anti bacterial agent for the bacteria causing eczema, dysmenorrhoea and spermetorrohea and leaf and petiole extract is effective in jaundice and gastro intestinal ailments. The results confirm the presence of constituents which are known to exhibit medicinal as well as physiological activities.