The desert area of former Princely State of Bahawalpur is known as Cholistan or Rohi. It was a part of Great Indian Desert Rajasthan. The Cholistan part of Bahawalpur state covered 2/3 land of the State. Like the other part of Rajasthan desert, it was also, once a thickly populated area with flowing rivers and green fields. Its people were prosperous and well mannered. It was the central place of Indus valley civilization as it revealed by discovering many sites in the area. After the dryness of rivers and conversion the area into desert a large number of populations migrated to other areas. But the remaining population decided to face the harshness of desert life and adjusted their way of life according to the atmosphere. Indeed they were civilized and had traditional way of life.In this paper an attempt is made to analyze their way of life, social values and religious activities. It is also stated that the Abbasid rulers of Bahawalpur gave special interest to this area as they made the Derawar fort capital of the state which situated in the centre of desert. It is analyzed the way of life, socio-religious traditions, dwelling and dress, food and habits, cultural values, simple nature, hospitality and other habitual manners. Moreover, social activities and celebrations of birth, wedding and death as well as religious activities, festivals, urses and fairs etc have also been highlighted.