Climate change and sustainable agriculture: An option for food security
Akram A Khan, Asim Hasan, Md. Anis Anwar
Climate change and its consequences are the matter of great concern all over the world as it can make life vulnerable on earth. There are clear evidences that atmospheric temperature has been gradually increasing since the beginning of the industrial revolution in 1850’s. IPCC’s reports conclude that most of the observed temperature increases since the middle of the 20th century is caused by increasing concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere emitted from human activities (fossil fuel burning). Climate Change is projected to have extensive effects on a number of economic, environmental and social issues, comprising agricultural production and food security in developing countries like India. Agriculture is extremely dependent on climatic factors. Change in climate leads to variation in temperature and precipitation which affects soil nutrient, crop yields, quality and production. The relationship between climate change and food security is complex. Estimation of the potential effects of climate change on food security requires a comprehensive understanding of the three aspects of food security – availability, access and utilization – and how climate change might affect each of them.Sustainable agricultural development is the need of the hour to tackle this catastrophic phenomenon. Under this, firstly increase in agricultural production and incomes to meet demand is to be considered, secondly production system is to be made more resilient for which a set of objectives (adaptation) is to be set to counter climate change and thirdly greenhouse gas emission from agriculture (mitigation) is to be checked. Considering the above concern this paper provides an overview of climate change and sustainable agriculture for providing food security to the increasing population.