Catalysts of ethnic identity the case study of tribal groups of western Bahr el Ghazal, South Sudan and Wayanad district of Kerala, India
Wurok Chan Malith
The study endeavors to strenuously examine and highlight the formation of ethnic identity and Ethnicity in a comparative analysis of the case of Western Bahr El Ghazal, South Sudan and the case of Tribal area in Wayanad, Kerala. However, the main objective of the study subsumes identifying the sociocultural characteristics of tribes in Kerala State and tribal group in Wau town, Western Bahr el-Ghazal, South Sudan, fathoming the process of identity formulation among the two communities, Meanwhile, the study is based on two sources of data, secondary and primary. Primary data was collected through in-depth interviews, observations and questionnaires administrated to 220 individuals in both South Sudan this in addition to interviews with key informants in the field. The statistic tools data analyses are EDUSTAT and SPSS. The main findings of the study in the case of Western Bahr el Ghazal conspicuously incorporate unequal distribution of resources, power, and inequity in the distribution of services and administration issues. Political rivalry amidst the elites which led to tribal animosity and identity politics. The current conflict was unfortunately aggravated by the relocation of Wau County without local community's consent. And Indiscriminate nabbing of the Fertitta's elites, politicians, and chiefs. The alleged exclusion of the Fertit from Security and organized forces. This in addition to lack of respect for the Fertit tribal groups and the conflict over Land wrought with the advent of immigrants, settlers, and pastoralists. Meanwhile, the fundings of the Tribal identity in Kerala include historical grievances since the colonial era and exploitation of tribal by middlemen, immigrants in general. Occupation of tribal land by immigrants which led to the alienation of the tribal land and dearth of permeant livelihood for tribal families. The dearth of political will in implementing tribal projects and land reform which could avail land for landless people. As well as inadequate health facilities and poor hygiene and educational challenges for tribal such as high dropout amidst tribal children due to socioeconomic issues and unconducive environment at home which discourages tribal children from pursuing their education.